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TERMCAP(5)                    File Formats Manual                   TERMCAP(5)

       termcap - terminal capability data base


       Termcap  is  a data base describing terminals, used, e.g., by vi(1) and
       curses(3).  Terminals are described in  termcap  by  giving  a  set  of
       capabilities  that  they  have  and  by  describing  how operations are
       performed.   Padding  requirements  and  initialization  sequences  are
       included in termcap.

       Entries  in  termcap  consist of a number of `:'-separated fields.  The
       first entry for each terminal gives the names that are  known  for  the
       terminal,  separated  by  `|' characters.  The first name is always two
       characters long and is used by older systems which store  the  terminal
       type  in  a  16-bit  word  in a system-wide data base.  The second name
       given is the most common abbreviation for the terminal, the  last  name
       given  should  be  a  long name fully identifying the terminal, and all
       others are understood as synonyms for the terminal name.  All names but
       the  first  and last should be in lower case and contain no blanks; the
       last name may well contain upper case and blanks for readability.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry)  should  be  chosen
       using  the  following  conventions.   The  particular piece of hardware
       making up the terminal should have a root name chosen,  thus  "hp2621".
       This  name  should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be
       in or user preferences should be indicated by appending a hyphen and an
       indicator  of  the mode.  Therefore, a "vt100" in 132-column mode would
       be "vt100-w".  The following suffixes should be used where possible:

       Suffix   Meaning                                   Example
       -w       Wide mode (more than 80 columns)          vt100-w
       -am      With automatic margins (usually default)  vt100-am
       -nam     Without automatic margins                 vt100-nam
       -n       Number of lines on the screen             aaa-60
       -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)       concept100-na
       -np      Number of pages of memory                 concept100-4p
       -rv      Reverse video                             concept100-rv

       The characters in the Notes field  in  the  table  have  the  following
       meanings (more than one may apply to a capability):

       N   indicates numeric parameter(s)
       P   indicates that padding may be specified
       *   indicates that padding may be based on the number of lines affected
       o   indicates capability is obsolete

       "Obsolete"  capabilities  have no terminfo equivalents, since they were
       considered  useless,  or  are  subsumed  by  other  capabilities.   New
       software should not rely on them at all.

       Name  Type  Notes  Description
       ae    str   (P)    End alternate character set
       AL    str   (NP*)  Add n new blank lines
       al    str   (P*)   Add new blank line
       am    bool         Terminal has automatic margins
       as    str   (P)    Start alternate character set
       bc    str   (o)    Backspace if not ^H
       bl    str   (P)    Audible signal (bell)
       bs    bool  (o)    Terminal can backspace with ^H
       bt    str   (P)    Back tab
       bw    bool         le (backspace) wraps from column 0 to last column
       CC    str          Terminal settable command character in prototype
       cd    str   (P*)   Clear to end of display
       ce    str   (P)    Clear to end of line
       ch    str   (NP)   Set cursor column (horizontal position)
       cl    str   (P*)   Clear screen and home cursor
       CM    str   (NP)   Memory-relative cursor addressing
       cm    str   (NP)   Screen-relative cursor motion
       co    num          Number of columns in a line (See BUGS section below)
       cr    str   (P)    Carriage return
       cs    str   (NP)   Change scrolling region (VT100)
       ct    str   (P)    Clear all tab stops
       cv    str   (NP)   Set cursor row (vertical position)
       da    bool         Display may be retained above the screen
       dB    num   (o)    Milliseconds of bs delay needed (default 0)
       db    bool         Display may be retained below the screen
       DC    str   (NP*)  Delete n characters
       dC    num   (o)    Milliseconds of cr delay needed (default 0)
       dc    str   (P*)   Delete character
       dF    num   (o)    Milliseconds of ff delay needed (default 0)
       DL    str   (NP*)  Delete n lines
       dl    str   (P*)   Delete line
       dm    str          Enter delete mode
       dN    num   (o)    Milliseconds of nl delay needed (default 0)
       DO    str   (NP*)  Move cursor down n lines
       do    str          Down one line
       ds    str          Disable status line
       dT    num   (o)    Milliseconds of horizontal tab delay needed (default
       dV    num   (o)    Milliseconds of vertical tab delay  needed  (default
       ec    str   (NP)   Erase n characters
       ed    str          End delete mode
       ei    str          End insert mode
       eo    bool         Can erase overstrikes with a blank
       EP    bool  (o)    Even parity
       es    bool         Escape can be used on the status line
       ff    str   (P*)   Hardcopy terminal page eject
       fs    str          Return from status line
       gn    bool         Generic line type (e.g. dialup, switch)
       hc    bool         Hardcopy terminal
       HD    bool  (o)    Half-duplex
       hd    str          Half-line down (forward 1/2 linefeed)
       ho    str   (P)    Home cursor
       hs    bool         Has extra "status line"
       hu    str          Half-line up (reverse 1/2 linefeed)
       hz    bool         Cannot print ~s (Hazeltine)
       i1-i3 str          Terminal initialization strings (terminfo only)
       IC    str   (NP*)  Insert n blank characters
       ic    str   (P*)   Insert character
       if    str          Name of file containing initialization string
       im    str          Enter insert mode
       in    bool         Insert mode distinguishes nulls
       iP    str          Pathname  of  program  for  initialization (terminfo
       ip    str   (P*)   Insert pad after character inserted
       is    str          Terminal initialization string (termcap only)
       it    num          Tabs initially every n positions
       K1    str          Sent by keypad upper left
       K2    str          Sent by keypad upper right
       K3    str          Sent by keypad center
       K4    str          Sent by keypad lower left
       K5    str          Sent by keypad lower right
       k0-k9 str          Sent by function keys 0-9
       kA    str          Sent by insert-line key
       ka    str          Sent by clear-all-tabs key
       kb    str          Sent by backspace key
       kC    str          Sent by clear-screen or erase key
       kD    str          Sent by delete-character key
       kd    str          Sent by down-arrow key
       kE    str          Sent by clear-to-end-of-line key
       ke    str          Out of "keypad transmit" mode
       kF    str          Sent by scroll-forward/down key
       kH    str          Sent by home-down key
       kh    str          Sent by home key
       kI    str          Sent by insert-character or enter-insert-mode key
       kL    str          Sent by delete-line key
       kl    str          Sent by left-arrow key
       kM    str          Sent by insert key while in insert mode
       km    bool         Has a "meta" key (shift, sets parity bit)
       kN    str          Sent by next-page key
       kn    num   (o)    Number of function (k0-k9) keys (default 0)
       ko    str   (o)    Termcap entries for other non-function keys
       kP    str          Sent by previous-page key
       kR    str          Sent by scroll-backward/up key
       kr    str          Sent by right-arrow key
       kS    str          Sent by clear-to-end-of-screen key
       ks    str          Put terminal in "keypad transmit" mode
       kT    str          Sent by set-tab key
       kt    str          Sent by clear-tab key
       ku    str          Sent by up-arrow key
       l0-l9 str          Labels on function keys if not "fn"
       LC    bool  (o)    Lower-case only
       LE    str   (NP)   Move cursor left n positions
       le    str   (P)    Move cursor left one position
       li    num          Number of lines on screen or page (See BUGS  section
       ll    str          Last line, first column
       lm    num          Lines of memory if > li (0 means varies)
       ma    str   (o)    Arrow key map (used by vi version 2 only)
       mb    str          Turn on blinking attribute
       md    str          Turn on bold (extra bright) attribute
       me    str          Turn off all attributes
       mh    str          Turn on half-bright attribute
       mi    bool         Safe to move while in insert mode
       mk    str          Turn on blank attribute (characters invisible)
       ml    str   (o)    Memory lock on above cursor
       mm    str          Turn on "meta mode" (8th bit)
       mo    str          Turn off "meta mode"
       mp    str          Turn on protected attribute
       mr    str          Turn on reverse-video attibute
       ms    bool         Safe to move in standout modes
       mu    str   (o)    Memory unlock (turn off memory lock)
       nc    bool  (o)    No  correctly-working  cr (Datamedia 2500, Hazeltine
       nd    str          Non-destructive space (cursor right)
       NL    bool  (o)    \n is newline, not line feed
       nl    str   (o)    Newline character if not \n
       ns    bool  (o)    Terminal is a CRT but doesn't scroll
       nw    str   (P)    Newline (behaves like cr followed by do)
       OP    bool  (o)    Odd parity
       os    bool         Terminal overstrikes
       pb    num          Lowest baud where delays are required
       pc    str          Pad character (default NUL)
       pf    str          Turn off the printer
       pk    str          Program function key n to type  string  s  (terminfo
       pl    str          Program function key n to execute string s (terminfo
       pO    str   (N)    Turn on the printer for n bytes
       po    str          Turn on the printer
       ps    str          Print contents of the screen
       pt    bool  (o)    Has hardware tabs (may need to be set with is)
       px    str          Program  function  key  n  to  transmit   string   s
                          (terminfo only)
       r1-r3 str          Reset  terminal  completely  to sane modes (terminfo
       rc    str   (P)    Restore cursor to position of last sc
       rf    str          Name of file containing reset codes
       RI    str   (NP)   Move cursor right n positions
       rp    str   (NP*)  Repeat character c n times
       rs    str          Reset terminal completely  to  sane  modes  (termcap
       sa    str   (NP)   Define the video attributes
       sc    str   (P)    Save cursor position
       se    str          End standout mode
       SF    str   (NP*)  Scroll forward n lines
       sf    str   (P)    Scroll text up
       sg    num          Number of garbage chars left by so or se (default 0)
       so    str          Begin standout mode
       SR    str   (NP*)  Scroll backward n lines
       sr    str   (P)    Scroll text down
       st    str          Set a tab in all rows, current column
       ta    str   (P)    Tab to next 8-position hardware tab stop
       tc    str          Entry of similar terminal - must be last
       te    str          String to end programs that use termcap
       ti    str          String to begin programs that use termcap
       ts    str   (N)    Go to status line, column n
       UC    bool  (o)    Upper-case only
       uc    str          Underscore one character and move past it
       ue    str          End underscore mode
       ug    num          Number of garbage chars left by us or ue (default 0)
       ul    bool         Underline character overstrikes
       UP    str   (NP*)  Move cursor up n lines
       up    str          Upline (cursor up)
       us    str          Start underscore mode
       vb    str          Visible bell (must not move cursor)
       ve    str          Make cursor appear normal (undo vs/vi)
       vi    str          Make cursor invisible
       vs    str          Make cursor very visible
       vt    num          Virtual   terminal  number  (not  supported  on  all
       wi    str   (N)    Set current window
       ws    num          Number of columns in status line
       xb    bool         Beehive (f1=ESC, f2=^C)
       xn    bool         Newline ignored after 80 cols (Concept)
       xo    bool         Terminal uses xoff/xon (DC3/DC1) handshaking
       xr    bool  (o)    Return acts like ce cr nl (Delta Data)
       xs    bool         Standout not erased by overwriting (Hewlett-Packard)
       xt    bool         Tabs ruin, magic so char (Teleray 1061)
       xx    bool  (o)    Tektronix 4025 insert-line

       A Sample Entry

       The following entry, which describes the Concept-100, is among the more
       complex entries in the termcap file as of this writing.

       ca|concept100|c100|concept|c104|concept100-4p|HDS Concept-100:\
         :al=3*\E^R:am:bl=^G:cd=16*\E^C:ce=16\E^U:cl=2*^L:cm=\Ea%+ %+ :\^M:db:dc=16\E^A:dl=3*\E^B:do=^J:ei=\E\200:eo:im=\E^P:in:\
         :mr=\ED:nd=\E=:pb#9600:rp=0.2*\Er%.%+ :se=\Ed\Ee:sf=^J:so=\EE\ED:\
         :.ta=8\t:te=\Ev    \200\200\200\200\200\200\Ep\r\n:\
         :ti=\EU\Ev  8p\Ep\r:ue=\Eg:ul:up=\E;:us=\EG:\

       Entries  may  continue  onto  multiple  lines by giving a \ as the last
       character of a line, and empty fields may be included  for  readability
       (here  between  the  last  field  on  a line and the first field on the
       next).  Comments may be included on lines beginning with "#".

       Types of Capabilities

       Capabilities in termcap are of three types: Boolean capabilities, which
       indicate   particular   features   that   the   terminal  has;  numeric
       capabilities, giving the size of the  display  or  the  size  of  other
       attributes;  and  string  capabilities,  which give character sequences
       that can be  used  to  perform  particular  terminal  operations.   All
       capabilities  have  two-letter  codes.  For instance, the fact that the
       Concept has automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return  and  linefeed
       when  the  end  of  a  line  is  reached)  is  indicated by the Boolean
       capability am.  Hence the description of the Concept includes am.

       Numeric capabilities are followed by the character `#' then the  value.
       In  the  example  above  co,  which indicates the number of columns the
       display has, gives the value `80' for the Concept.

       Finally, string-valued capabilities, such as  ce  (clear-to-end-of-line
       sequence)  are  given  by  the  two-letter  code, an `=', then a string
       ending at the next following `:'.  A delay in milliseconds  may  appear
       after  the `=' in such a capability, which causes padding characters to
       be supplied by tputs after the remainder  of  the  string  is  sent  to
       provide this delay.  The delay can be either a number, e.g.  `20', or a
       number followed by an `*', i.e.,  `3*'.   An  `*'  indicates  that  the
       padding required is proportional to the number of lines affected by the
       operation, and  the  amount  given  is  the  per-affected-line  padding
       required.   (In  the  case of insert-character, the factor is still the
       number of lines affected; this is always 1 unless the terminal  has  in
       and  the  software uses it.)  When an `*' is specified, it is sometimes
       useful to give a delay of the form `3.5' to specify a delay per line to
       tenths of milliseconds.  (Only one decimal place is allowed.)

       A  number  of  escape  sequences  are  provided  in  the  string-valued
       capabilities for easy encoding of control characters there.  \E maps to
       an ESC character, ^X maps to a control-X for any appropriate X, and the
       sequences \n \r \t \b \f map to linefeed, return, tab,  backspace,  and
       formfeed,  respectively.   Finally,  characters  may  be given as three
       octal digits after a \, and the characters ^ and \ may be given  as  \^
       and  \\.   If  it  is necessary to place a : in a capability it must be
       escaped in octal as \072.  If it is necessary to place a NUL  character
       in  a string capability it must be encoded as \200.  (The routines that
       deal with termcap use C strings and strip the high bits of  the  output
       very late, so that a \200 comes out as a \000 would.)

       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.  For example, see the first cr
       and ta in the example above.

       Preparing Descriptions

       We  now  outline  how  to  prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most
       effective way to prepare a terminal description  is  by  imitating  the
       description  of  a  similar  terminal  in  termcap  and  to  build up a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi to check that
       they  are  correct.   Be  aware that a very unusual terminal may expose
       deficiencies in the ability of the termcap file to describe it or  bugs
       in  vi.   To  easily  test  a  new terminal description you can set the
       environment variable  TERMCAP  to  the  absolute  pathname  of  a  file
       containing  the  description  you are working on and programs will look
       there rather than in /etc/termcap.  TERMCAP can  also  be  set  to  the
       termcap  entry  itself  to  avoid  reading  the file when starting up a

       To get the padding for insert-line right (if the terminal  manufacturer
       did not document it), a severe test is to use vi to edit /etc/passwd at
       9600 baud, delete roughly 16 lines from the middle of the screen,  then
       hit  the `u' key several times quickly.  If the display messes up, more
       padding is usually needed.  A similar test  can  be  used  for  insert-

       Basic Capabilities

       The  number  of  columns on each line of the display is given by the co
       numeric capability.  If the display is a CRT, then the number of  lines
       on  the  screen  is  given  by the li capability.  If the display wraps
       around to the beginning of the next line when the  cursor  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the am capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, the code to do this is given  by  the  cl  string
       capability.   If  the  terminal  overstrikes  (rather than clearing the
       position when a character  is  overwritten),  it  should  have  the  os
       capability.   If the terminal is a printing terminal, with no soft copy
       unit, give it both hc and os.  (os applies to storage scope  terminals,
       such  as  the  Tektronix  4010  series, as well as to hard copy and APL
       terminals.)  If there is a code to move the cursor to the left edge  of
       the  current  row,  give  this as cr.  (Normally this will be carriage-
       return, ^M.)  If there is a code to produce an  audible  signal  (bell,
       beep, etc.), give this as bl.

       If  there is a code (such as backspace) to move the cursor one position
       to the left, that capability should be given as le.   Similarly,  codes
       to  move  to the right, up, and down should be given as nd, up, and do,
       respectively.  These local cursor motions should  not  alter  the  text
       they  pass  over; for example, you would not normally use "nd= " unless
       the terminal has the os capability, because the space would  erase  the
       character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       termcap have undefined behavior at the left and  top  edges  of  a  CRT
       display.   Programs  should  never attempt to backspace around the left
       edge, unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up off the top  using
       local cursor motions.

       In order to scroll text up, a program goes to the bottom left corner of
       the screen and sends the sf (index) string.  To  scroll  text  down,  a
       program  goes  to  the  top  left corner of the screen and sends the sr
       (reverse index) string.  The strings sf and sr have undefined  behavior
       when  not  on  their  respective  corners of the screen.  Parameterized
       versions of the scrolling sequences are SF and SR, which have the  same
       semantics  as  sf and sr except that they take one parameter and scroll
       that many lines.  They also  have  undefined  behavior  except  at  the
       appropriate corner of the screen.

       The  am capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of
       the screen when text is output there, but  this  does  not  necessarily
       apply  to  nd  from  the last column.  Leftward local motion is defined
       from the left edge only when bw is given; then an le from the left edge
       will  move  to  the right edge of the previous row.  This is useful for
       drawing a box around the edge of  the  screen,  for  example.   If  the
       terminal   has   switch-selectable   automatic   margins,  the  termcap
       description usually assumes that this feature is on, i.e., am.  If  the
       terminal has a command that moves to the first column of the next line,
       that command can be given as nw (newline).  It is permissible for  this
       to  clear  the remainder of the current line, so if the terminal has no
       correctly-working CR and LF it may still be possible to craft a working
       nw out of one or both of them.

       These   capabilities  suffice  to  describe  hardcopy  and  "glass-tty"
       terminals.  Thus the Teletype model 33 is described as

         T3|tty33|33|tty|Teletype model 33:\

       and the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

         l3|adm3|3|LSI ADM-3:\

       Parameterized Strings

       Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters are  described
       by a parameterized string capability, with printf(3)-like escapes %x in
       it, while other characters are passed through unchanged.  For  example,
       to address the cursor the cm capability is given, using two parameters:
       the row and column to move to.  (Rows and  columns  are  numbered  from
       zero  and  refer to the physical screen visible to the user, not to any
       unseen memory.  If the terminal has memory-relative cursor  addressing,
       that can be indicated by an analogous CM capability.)

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

               %%      output `%'
               %d      output value as in printf %d
               %2      output value as in printf %2d
               %3      output value as in printf %3d
               %.      output value as in printf %c
               %+x     add x to value, then do %.
               %>xy    if value > x then add y, no output
               %r      reverse order of two parameters, no output
               %i      increment by one, no output
               %n      exclusive-or all parameters with 0140 (Datamedia 2500)
               %B      BCD (16*(value/10)) + (value%10), no output
               %D      Reverse coding (value - 2*(value%16)), no output (Delta

       Consider the Hewlett-Packard 2645, which, to get to row  3  and  column
       12, needs to be sent "\E&a12c03Y" padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that
       the order of the row and column coordinates is reversed here  and  that
       the  row  and  column  are  sent  as  two-digit  integers.  Thus its cm
       capability is "cm=6\E&%r%2c%2Y".

       The Microterm ACT-IV needs the  current  row  and  column  sent  simply
       encoded  in  binary  preceded by a ^T, "cm=^T%.%.".  Terminals that use
       "%." need to be able to backspace the  cursor  (le)  and  to  move  the
       cursor up one line on the screen (up).  This is necessary because it is
       not always safe to transmit \n, ^D, and \r, as the system may change or
       discard  them.  (Programs using termcap must set terminal modes so that
       tabs are not expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This  turns  out  to  be
       essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final  example  is  the  Lear  Siegler ADM-3a, which offsets row and
       column by a blank character, thus "cm=\E=%+ %+ ".

       Row or column  absolute  cursor  addressing  can  be  given  as  single
       parameter   capabilities  ch  (horizontal  position  absolute)  and  cv
       (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these  are  shorter  than  the
       more  general two-parameter sequence (as with the Hewlett-Packard 2645)
       and can be used in preference to cm.  If there are parameterized  local
       motions (e.g., move n positions to the right) these can be given as DO,
       LE, RI, and UP with a single parameter indicating how many positions to
       move.   These  are  primarily  useful if the terminal does not have cm,
       such as the Tektronix 4025.

       Cursor Motions

       If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to  the  very  upper
       left corner of the screen), this can be given as ho.  Similarly, a fast
       way of getting to the lower left-hand corner can be given as  ll;  this
       may  involve  going  up  with  up from the home position, but a program
       should never do this itself (unless ll does), because it  can  make  no
       assumption  about the effect of moving up from the home position.  Note
       that the home position is the same as cursor address (0,0): to the  top
       left  corner  of  the  screen,  not  of  memory.  (Therefore, the "\EH"
       sequence on Hewlett-Packard terminals cannot be used for ho.)

       Area Clears

       If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end  of  the
       line,  leaving  the cursor where it is, this should be given as ce.  If
       the terminal can clear from the current position  to  the  end  of  the
       display,  this should be given as cd.  cd must only be invoked from the
       first column of a line.  (Therefore, it can be simulated by  a  request
       to delete a large number of lines, if a true cd is not available.)

       Insert/Delete Line

       If  the  terminal  can open a new blank line before the line containing
       the cursor, this should be given as al; this must be invoked only  from
       the  first position of a line.  The cursor must then appear at the left
       of the newly blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line that  the
       cursor  is  on, this should be given as dl; this must only be used from
       the first position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of  al  and  dl
       which  take a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can
       be given as AL and DL.  If the terminal has a settable scrolling region
       (like  the VT100), the command to set this can be described with the cs
       capability, which takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the
       scrolling  region.  The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using
       this command.  It is possible to get the effect  of  insert  or  delete
       line  using  this  command  --  the sc and rc (save and restore cursor)
       commands are also useful.  Inserting lines at the top or bottom of  the
       screen can also be done using sr or sf on many terminals without a true
       insert/delete line, and is often faster even on  terminals  with  those

       If  the  terminal  has the ability to define a window as part of memory
       which all commands affect, it should  be  given  as  the  parameterized
       string  wi.   The  four parameters are the starting and ending lines in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory,  in  that  order.
       (This  terminfo  capability  is  described  for  completeness.   It  is
       unlikely that any termcap-using program will support it.)

       If the terminal can retain display memory above the screen, then the da
       capability  should  be  given; if display memory can be retained below,
       then db should be given.   These  indicate  that  deleting  a  line  or
       scrolling  may  bring  non-blank  lines up from below or that scrolling
       back with sr may bring down non-blank lines.

       Insert/Delete Character

       There are two basic kinds of  intelligent  terminals  with  respect  to
       insert/delete  character that can be described using termcap.  The most
       common insert/delete character operations affect only the characters on
       the  current line and shift characters off the end of the line rigidly.
       Other terminals, such as the Concept-100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl, make
       a  distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen, shifting
       upon an insert or delete only to an untyped blank on the  screen  which
       is  either  eliminated  or  expanded  to  two  untyped blanks.  You can
       determine the kind of terminal you have by  clearing  the  screen  then
       typing text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def" using local
       cursor motions (not spaces) between the  "abc"  and  the  "def".   Then
       position  the  cursor  before  the "abc" and put the terminal in insert
       mode.  If typing characters causes  the  rest  of  the  line  to  shift
       rigidly and characters to fall off the end, then your terminal does not
       distinguish between blanks and untyped positions.  If the "abc"  shifts
       over  to  the  "def"  which  then  move  together around the end of the
       current line and onto the next as you insert, then you have the  second
       type  of  terminal  and should give the capability in, which stands for
       "insert null".  While these are two logically separate attributes  (one
       line  vs.   multi-line  insert  mode,  and special treatment of untyped
       spaces), we  have  seen  no  terminals  whose  insert  mode  cannot  be
       described with the single attribute.

       Termcap  can  describe  both  terminals  that  have  an insert mode and
       terminals that send a simple sequence to open a blank position  on  the
       current  line.   Give as im the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as ei the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as ic  any  sequence
       that  needs to be sent just before each character to be inserted.  Most
       terminals with a true insert mode will not give ic; terminals that  use
       a  sequence  to  open  a screen position should give it here.  (If your
       terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to  ic.   Do  not
       give  both  unless  the  terminal  actually requires both to be used in
       combination.)  If post-insert padding is needed, give this as a  number
       of  milliseconds  in ip (a string option).  Any other sequence that may
       need to be sent after insertion of a single character can also be given
       in  ip.   If your terminal needs to be placed into an `insert mode' and
       needs a special code preceding each inserted character, then both im/ei
       and  ic  can  be given, and both will be used.  The IC capability, with
       one parameter n, will repeat the effects of ic n times.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while  in  insert  mode  to
       delete  characters  on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after the
       insertion position).  If your terminal allows motion  while  in  insert
       mode,  you  can  give  the  capability mi to speed up inserting in this
       case.  Omitting mi will affect only  speed.   Some  terminals  (notably
       Datamedia's)  must  not  have  mi  because of the way their insert mode

       Finally, you can specify dc to delete a single character, DC  with  one
       parameter n to delete n characters, and delete mode by giving dm and ed
       to enter and exit delete mode (which is any mode the terminal needs  to
       be placed in for dc to work).

       Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells

       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
       display form as standout mode, representing a good high-contrast, easy-
       on-the-eyes format for highlighting error messages and other  attention
       getters.   (If  you  have  a  choice, reverse video plus half-bright is
       good, or reverse  video  alone.)   The  sequences  to  enter  and  exit
       standout  mode  are  given  as so and se, respectively.  If the code to
       change into or out of standout mode leaves one or even two blank spaces
       or  garbage  characters  on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061
       do, then sg should be given to tell how many characters are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as  us  and
       ue,  respectively.   Underline  mode change garbage is specified by ug,
       similar to sg.  If the terminal has a code  to  underline  the  current
       character  and  move  the cursor one position to the right, such as the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to  enter  various  highlighting  modes  include  mb
       (blinking),  md  (bold  or  extra  bright), mh (dim or half-bright), mk
       (blanking or invisible text), mp (protected), mr  (reverse  video),  me
       (turn  off  all  attribute  modes),  as  (enter alternate character set
       mode), and ae (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on  any  of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If  there  is  a  sequence  to set arbitrary combinations of mode, this
       should be given as sa (set  attributes),  taking  9  parameters.   Each
       parameter  is  either  0 or 1, as the corresponding attributes is on or
       off.  The 9 parameters are, in  order:  standout,  underline,  reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, and alternate character set.  Not all
       modes need be supported by  sa,  only  those  for  which  corresponding
       attribute commands exist.  (It is unlikely that a termcap-using program
       will support this capability, which is defined for  compatibility  with

       Terminals  with  the  "magic  cookie" glitches (sg and ug), rather than
       maintaining extra attribute  bits  for  each  character  cell,  instead
       deposit  special  "cookies", or "garbage characters", when they receive
       mode-setting sequences, which affect the display algorithm.

       Some terminals, such as the Hewlett-Packard 2621,  automatically  leave
       standout  mode  when  they  move  to  a  new line or when the cursor is
       addressed.  Programs using standout mode should exit standout  mode  on
       such  terminals  before  moving  the  cursor  or sending a newline.  On
       terminals where this is not a problem,  the  ms  capability  should  be
       present to say that this overhead is unnecessary.

       If  the  terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement), this can be given as vb; it must not move
       the cursor.

       If  the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not
       on the bottom line (to change, for example,  a  non-blinking  underline
       into an easier-to-find block or blinking underline), give this sequence
       as vs.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that  as  vi.   The  capability ve, which undoes the effects of both of
       these modes, should also be given.

       If your terminal correctly  displays  underlined  characters  (with  no
       special  codes  needed)  even  though  it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability ul.  If  overstrikes  are  erasable  with  a
       blank, this should be indicated by giving eo.


       If  the  terminal  has  a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is  not  possible
       to  handle  terminals  where  the keypad only works in local mode (this
       applies, for example, to the unshifted Hewlett-Packard 2621 keys).   If
       the  keypad can be set to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as
       ks and ke.  Otherwise the keypad is assumed to  always  transmit.   The
       codes  sent  by  the left-arrow, right-arrow, up-arrow, down-arrow, and
       home keys can be given as kl, kr, ku, kd,  and  kh,  respectively.   If
       there  are  function  keys such as f0, f1, ..., f9, the codes they send
       can be given as k0, k1,..., k9.  If these keys have labels  other  than
       the  default  f0 through f9, the labels can be given as l0, l1,..., l9.
       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can  be  given:  kH
       (home  down),  kb  (backspace),  ka (clear all tabs), kt (clear the tab
       stop  in  this  column),  kC  (clear  screen  or  erase),  kD   (delete
       character),  kL  (delete line), kM (exit insert mode), kE (clear to end
       of line), kS (clear to end of screen), kI (insert  character  or  enter
       insert  mode), kA (insert line), kN (next page), kP (previous page), kF
       (scroll forward/down), kR (scroll backward/up), and kT (set a tab  stop
       in this column).  In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys
       including the four arrow keys, then the other five keys can be given as
       K1,  K2, K3, K4, and K5.  These keys are useful when the effects of a 3
       by 3 directional pad are needed.  The obsolete ko  capability  formerly
       used  to  describe "other" function keys has been completely supplanted
       by the above capabilities.

       The ma entry is also used to indicate arrow keys on terminals that have
       single-character  arrow  keys.   It  is  obsolete  but  still in use in
       version 2 of vi which must be run on some minicomputers due  to  memory
       limitations.   This field is redundant with kl, kr, ku, kd, and kh.  It
       consists of groups  of  two  characters.   In  each  group,  the  first
       character  is  what an arrow key sends, and the second character is the
       corresponding vi command.  These commands are h for kl, j for kd, k for
       ku,  l  for  kr,  and  H  for  kh.   For  example,  the Mime would have
       "ma=^Hh^Kj^Zk^Xl" indicating arrow keys left (^H), down (^K), up  (^Z),
       and right (^X).  (There is no home key on the Mime.)

       Tabs and Initialization

       If  the  terminal  needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be  given  as ti and te.  This arises, for example, from terminals like
       the Concept with more than one page of memory.   If  the  terminal  has
       only  memory-relative  cursor addressing and not screen-relative cursor
       addressing, a screen-sized window must be fixed into  the  display  for
       cursor  addressing  to  work  properly.   This  is  also  used  for the
       Tektronix 4025, where ti sets the command character to be the one  used
       by termcap.

       Other  capabilities  include  is,  an  initialization  string  for  the
       terminal, and if, the name of a  file  containing  long  initialization
       strings.   These  strings  are  expected to set the terminal into modes
       consistent with the rest of the termcap description.  They are normally
       sent  to  the  terminal by the tset program each time the user logs in.
       They will be printed in the following order: is; setting tabs using  ct
       and  st;  and  finally if.  (Terminfo uses i1-i2 instead of is and runs
       the program iP and prints i3 after the other initializations.)  A  pair
       of  sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown state can
       be analogously given as rs and if.  These strings  are  output  by  the
       reset  program,  which  is  used  when  the terminal gets into a wedged
       state.  (Terminfo uses r1-r3 instead of  rs.)   Commands  are  normally
       placed in rs and rf only if they produce annoying effects on the screen
       and are not necessary when logging in.  For example, the command to set
       the  VT100  into  80-column  mode  would normally be part of is, but it
       causes an annoying glitch of the screen  and  is  not  normally  needed
       since the terminal is usually already in 80-column mode.

       If  the  terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next
       tab stop can be given as ta (usually ^I).  A  "backtab"  command  which
       moves  leftward  to  the  previous  tab  stop  can  be given as bt.  By
       convention, if the terminal driver modes indicate that  tab  stops  are
       being  expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal,
       programs should not use ta or bt even if they are  present,  since  the
       user  may  not  have  the  tab stops properly set.  If the terminal has
       hardware tabs that  are  initially  set  every  n  positions  when  the
       terminal is powered up, then the numeric parameter it is given, showing
       the number of positions between tab stops.  This is  normally  used  by
       the  tset  command  to  determine  whether  to  set the driver mode for
       hardware tab expansion, and whether to  set  the  tab  stops.   If  the
       terminal  has  tab  stops  that can be saved in nonvolatile memory, the
       termcap description can assume that they are properly set.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given  as
       ct  (clear  all tab stops) and st (set a tab stop in the current column
       of every row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to  set  the  tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in is or if.


       Certain capabilities control padding in the terminal driver.  These are
       primarily needed by hardcopy terminals and are used by the tset program
       to  set  terminal  driver  modes appropriately.  Delays embedded in the
       capabilities cr, sf, le, ff, and ta will cause  the  appropriate  delay
       bits  to  be  set in the terminal driver.  If pb (padding baud rate) is
       given, these values can be ignored at baud rates below the value of pb.
       For  4.2BSD  tset, the delays are given as numeric capabilities dC, dN,
       dB, dF, and dT instead.


       If the terminal requires other than a NUL (zero) character  as  a  pad,
       this  can be given as pc.  Only the first character of the pc string is

       If the terminal has commands to save and restore the  position  of  the
       cursor, give them as sc and rc.

       If the terminal has an extra "status line" that is not normally used by
       software, this fact can be indicated.  If the status line is viewed  as
       an  extra  line below the bottom line, then the capability hs should be
       given.  Special strings to go to a position in the status line  and  to
       return  from the status line can be given as ts and fs.  (fs must leave
       the cursor position in the same  place  that  it  was  before  ts.   If
       necessary,  the  sc  and rc strings can be included in ts and fs to get
       this effect.)  The capability ts takes  one  parameter,  which  is  the
       column  number  of  the status line to which the cursor is to be moved.
       If escape sequences and other special commands such as tab  work  while
       in  the status line, the flag es can be given.  A string that turns off
       the status line (or otherwise erases its contents) should be  given  as
       ds.   The  status  line is normally assumed to be the same width as the
       rest of the screen, i.e., co.  If the status line is a different  width
       (possibly  because  the  terminal  does  not allow an entire line to be
       loaded), then its width in columns can be indicated  with  the  numeric
       parameter ws.

       If  the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated
       with hu (half-line up) and hd  (half-line  down).   This  is  primarily
       useful  for  superscripts  and  subscripts on hardcopy terminals.  If a
       hardcopy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this  as
       ff (usually ^L).

       If  there  is  a  command to repeat a given character a given number of
       times  (to  save  time  transmitting  a  large  number   of   identical
       characters),  this  can  be indicated with the parameterized string rp.
       The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the  second  is
       the  number of times to repeat it.  (This is a terminfo feature that is
       unlikely to be supported by a program that uses termcap.)

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the Tektronix
       4025,  this can be indicated with CC.  A prototype command character is
       chosen which is used in all capabilities.  This character is  given  in
       the  CC  capability  to  identify  it.   The  following  convention  is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       CC  variable,  and if found, all occurrences of the prototype character
       are replaced by the character in the environment variable.  This use of
       the  CC  environment  variable is a very bad idea, as it conflicts with

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific  kind  of  known
       terminal,  such  as  switch, dialup, patch, and network, should include
       the gn (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they  do
       not  know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not apply
       to virtual terminal descriptions for which  the  escape  sequences  are

       If  the  terminal uses xoff/xon (DC3/DC1) handshaking for flow control,
       give xo.  Padding information should still be included so that routines
       can  make  better decisions about costs, but actual pad characters will
       not be transmitted.

       If the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
       8th  bit  of any character transmitted, then this fact can be indicated
       with km.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th  bit  is  parity
       and  it  will  usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta
       mode" on and off, they can be given as mm and mo.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once,  the  number  of  lines  of  memory can be indicated with lm.  An
       explicit value of 0 indicates that the number of lines  is  not  fixed,
       but that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the  terminal  is one of those supported by the UNIX system virtual
       terminal protocol, the terminal number can be given as vt.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to  the
       terminal can be given as ps: print the contents of the screen; pf: turn
       off the printer; and po: turn on the printer.  When the printer is  on,
       all  text  sent  to  the  terminal  will be sent to the printer.  It is
       undefined whether the text is also displayed  on  the  terminal  screen
       when  the printer is on.  A variation pO takes one parameter and leaves
       the printer on for as many characters as the value  of  the  parameter,
       then  turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.  All
       text, including pf, is transparently passed to the printer while pO  is
       in effect.

       Strings  to program function keys can be given as pk, pl, and px.  Each
       of these strings takes two  parameters:  the  function  key  number  to
       program  (from 0 to 9) and the string to program it with.  Function key
       numbers out of this range may program undefined  keys  in  a  terminal-
       dependent  manner.   The differences among the capabilities are that pk
       causes pressing the given key to be the same as  the  user  typing  the
       given  string;  pl  causes the string to be executed by the terminal in
       local mode; and px causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.
       Unfortunately,  due  to  lack  of a definition for string parameters in
       termcap, only terminfo supports these capabilities.

       Glitches and Braindamage

       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be displayed,
       should indicate hz.

       The   nc   capability,   now  obsolete,  formerly  indicated  Datamedia
       terminals, which echo \r \n for carriage return then ignore a following

       Terminals  that ignore a linefeed immediately after an am wrap, such as
       the Concept, should indicate xn.

       If ce is required to get rid of standout  (instead  of  merely  writing
       normal text on top of it), xs should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should indicate xt (destructive tabs).  This glitch is  also  taken  to
       mean  that it is not possible to position the cursor on top of a "magic
       cookie", and that to erase standout mode it is necessary to use  delete
       and insert line.

       The  Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the ESC or
       ^C characters, has xb, indicating that the "f1" key is used for ESC and
       "f2"  for  ^C.  (Only certain Superbees have this problem, depending on
       the ROM.)

       Other specific terminal  problems  may  be  corrected  by  adding  more
       capabilities of the form xx.

       Similar Terminals

       If  there  are  two very similar terminals, one can be defined as being
       just like the other with certain exceptions.  The string capability  tc
       can  be  given  with the name of the similar terminal.  This capability
       must be last, and the combined length of the entries  must  not  exceed
       1024.   The capabilities given before tc override those in the terminal
       type invoked by tc.  A capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the
       left  of  the  tc invocation, where xx is the capability.  For example,
       the entry


       defines a "2621-nl" that does not have the ks or ke capabilities, hence
       does  not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.  This is
       useful for different modes  for  a  terminal,  or  for  different  user

       William Joy
       Mark Horton added underlining and keypad support

       /etc/termcap   file  containing  terminal descriptions /usr/etc/termcap
                      file containing more terminal descriptions (Minix-vmd)

       elvis(1), more(1), termcap(3), printf(3).

       Lines and columns are now stored by  the  kernel  as  well  as  in  the
       termcap entry.  Most programs now use the kernel information primarily;
       the information in this file is used only if the kernel does  not  have
       any information.

       Not all programs support all entries.

       The  MINIX  3 termcap(3) does not understand everything described here,
       unlike the one Minix-vmd uses.

3rd Berkeley Distribution       1 November 1985                     TERMCAP(5)