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MANDOC_CHAR(7)       BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual       MANDOC_CHAR(7)

     mandoc_char -- mandoc special characters

     This page documents the roff(7) escape sequences accepted by mandoc(1) to
     represent special characters in mdoc(7) and man(7) documents.

     The rendering depends on the mandoc(1) output mode; in ASCII output, most
     characters are completely unintelligible.  For that reason, using any of
     the special characters documented here, except those discussed in the
     DESCRIPTION, is strongly discouraged; they are supported merely for
     backwards compatibility with existing documents.

     In particular, in English manual pages, do not use special-character
     escape sequences to represent national language characters in author
     names; instead, provide ASCII transcriptions of the names.

   Dashes and Hyphens
     In typography there are different types of dashes of various width: the
     hyphen (-), the minus sign (-), the en-dash (-), and the em-dash (--).

     Hyphens are used for adjectives; to separate the two parts of a compound
     word; or to separate a word across two successive lines of text.  The
     hyphen does not need to be escaped:


     The mathematical minus sign is used for negative numbers or subtraction.
     It should be written as '\-':

           a = 3 \- 1;
           b = \-2;

     The en-dash is used to separate the two elements of a range, or can be
     used the same way as an em-dash.  It should be written as '\(en':

           pp. 95\(en97.
           Go away \(en or else!

     The em-dash can be used to show an interruption or can be used the same
     way as colons, semi-colons, or parentheses.  It should be written as

           Three things \(em apples, oranges, and bananas.
           This is not that \(em rather, this is that.

     Note: hyphens, minus signs, and en-dashes look identical under normal
     ASCII output.  Other formats, such as PostScript, render them correctly,
     with differing widths.

     To separate words in normal text, for indenting and alignment in literal
     context, and when none of the following special cases apply, just use the
     normal space character (' ').

     When filling text, lines may be broken between words, i.e. at space
     characters.  To prevent a line break between two particular words, use
     the non-breaking space escape sequence ('\~') instead of the normal space
     character.  For example, the input string "number\~1" will be kept
     together as "number 1" on the same output line.

     On request and macro lines, the normal space character serves as an
     argument delimiter.  To include whitespace into arguments, quoting is
     usually the best choice.  In some cases, using either the non-breaking
     ('\~') or the breaking ('\ ') space escape sequence may be preferable.
     To escape macro names and to protect whitespace at the end of input
     lines, the zero-width space ('\&') is often useful.  For example, in
     mdoc(7), a normal space character can be displayed in single quotes in
     either of the following ways:

           .Sq " "
           .Sq \ \&

     On request and macro lines, the double-quote character ('"') is handled
     specially to allow quoting.  One way to prevent this special handling is
     by using the '\(dq' escape sequence.

     Note that on text lines, literal double-quote characters can be used
     verbatim.  All other quote-like characters can be used verbatim as well,
     even on request and macro lines.

     The period ('.') is handled specially at the beginning of an input line,
     where it introduces a roff(7) request or a macro, and when appearing
     alone as a macro argument in mdoc(7).  In such situations, prepend a
     zero-width space ('\&.') to make it behave like normal text.

     Do not use the '\.' escape sequence.  It does not prevent special
     handling of the period.

     To include a literal backslash ('\') into the output, use the ('\e')
     escape sequence.

     Note that doubling it ('\\') is not the right way to output a backslash.
     Because mandoc(1) does not implement full roff(7) functionality, it may
     work with mandoc(1), but it may have weird effects on complete roff(7)

     Special characters are encoded as '\X' (for a one-character escape),
     '\(XX' (two-character), and '\[N]' (N-character).  For details, see the
     Special Characters subsection of the roff(7) manual.

           Input    Description
           \~       non-breaking, non-collapsing space
           \        breaking, non-collapsing n-width space
           \^       zero-width space
           \%       zero-width space
           \&       zero-width space
           \|       zero-width space
           \0       breaking, non-collapsing digit-width space
           \c       removes any trailing space (if applicable)

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(ba     |           bar
           \(br     |           box rule
           \(ul     _           underscore
           \(rl                 overline
           \(bb     |           broken bar
           \(sl     /           forward slash
           \(rs     \           backward slash

     Text markers:
           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(ci     O           circle
           \(bu     o           bullet
           \(dd     <**>        double dagger
           \(dg     <*>         dagger
           \(lz     <>          lozenge
           \(sq     []          white square
           \(ps     <paragraph> paragraph
           \(sc     <section>   section
           \(lh     <=          left hand
           \(rh     =>          right hand
           \(at     @           at
           \(sh     #           hash (pound)
           \(CR     <cr>        carriage return
           \(OK                 check mark

     Legal symbols:
           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(co     (C)         copyright
           \(rg     (R)         registered
           \(tm     tm          trademarked

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(em     --          em-dash
           \(en     -           en-dash
           \(hy     -           hyphen
           \e       \           back-slash
           \.       .           period
           \(r!     !           upside-down exclamation
           \(r?     ?           upside-down question

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(Bq     ,,          right low double-quote
           \(bq     ,           right low single-quote
           \(lq     "           left double-quote
           \(rq     "           right double-quote
           \(oq     '           left single-quote
           \(cq     '           right single-quote
           \(aq     '           apostrophe quote (text)
           \(dq     "           double quote (text)
           \(Fo     <<          left guillemet
           \(Fc     >>          right guillemet
           \(fo     <           left single guillemet
           \(fc     >           right single guillemet

           Input                Rendered    Description
           \(lB                 [           left bracket
           \(rB                 ]           right bracket
           \(lC                 {           left brace
           \(rC                 }           right brace
           \(la                 <           left angle
           \(ra                 >           right angle
           \(bv                 |           brace extension
           \[braceex]                       brace extension
           \[bracketlefttp]                 top-left hooked bracket
           \[bracketleftbp]                 bottom-left hooked bracket
           \[bracketleftex]                 left hooked bracket extension
           \[bracketrighttp]                top-right hooked bracket
           \[bracketrightbp]                bottom-right hooked bracket
           \[bracketrightex]                right hooked bracket extension
           \(lt                 ,-          top-left hooked brace
           \[bracelefttp]                   top-left hooked brace
           \(lk                 {           mid-left hooked brace
           \[braceleftmid]                  mid-left hooked brace
           \(lb                 `-          bottom-left hooked brace
           \[braceleftbp]                   bottom-left hooked brace
           \[braceleftex]                   left hooked brace extension
           \(rt                 -.          top-left hooked brace
           \[bracerighttp]                  top-right hooked brace
           \(rk                 }           mid-right hooked brace
           \[bracerightmid]                 mid-right hooked brace
           \(rb                 -'          bottom-right hooked brace
           \[bracerightbp]                  bottom-right hooked brace
           \[bracerightex]                  right hooked brace extension
           \[parenlefttp]                   top-left hooked parenthesis
           \[parenleftbp]                   bottom-left hooked parenthesis
           \[parenleftex]                   left hooked parenthesis extension
           \[parenrighttp]                  top-right hooked parenthesis
           \[parenrightbp]                  bottom-right hooked parenthesis
           \[parenrightex]                  right hooked parenthesis extension

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(<-     <-          left arrow
           \(->     ->          right arrow
           \(<>     <->         left-right arrow
           \(da     v           down arrow
           \(ua     ^           up arrow
           \(va                 up-down arrow
           \(lA     <=          left double-arrow
           \(rA     =>          right double-arrow
           \(hA     <=>         left-right double-arrow
           \(uA     ^           up double-arrow
           \(dA     v           down double-arrow
           \(vA                 up-down double-arrow

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(AN     ^           logical and
           \(OR     v           logical or
           \(no     ~           logical not
           \[tno]   ~           logical not (text)
           \(te     <there exists>             existential quantifier
           \(fa     <for all>   universal quantifier
           \(st     <such that> such that
           \(tf     <therefore> therefore
           \(3d     <therefore> therefore
           \(or     |           bitwise or

           Input            Rendered    Description
           \(pl             +           plus
           \(mi             -           minus
           \-               -           minus (text)
           \(-+             -+          minus-plus
           \(+-             +-          plus-minus
           \[t+-]           +-          plus-minus (text)
           \(pc             .           centre-dot
           \(mu             x           multiply
           \[tmu]           x           multiply (text)
           \(c*             x           circle-multiply
           \(c+             +           circle-plus
           \(di             /           divide
           \[tdi]           /           divide (text)
           \(f/             /           fraction
           \(**             *           asterisk
           \(<=             <=          less-than-equal
           \(>=             >=          greater-than-equal
           \(<<             <<          much less
           \(>>             >>          much greater
           \(eq             =           equal
           \(!=             !=          not equal
           \(==             ==          equivalent
           \(ne             !==         not equivalent
           \(=~             =~          congruent
           \(-~                         asymptotically congruent
           \(ap             ~           asymptotically similar
           \(~~             ~~          approximately similar
           \(~=             ~=          approximately equal
           \(pt             <proportional to>          proportionate
           \(es             {}          empty set
           \(mo             <element of>               element
           \(nm             <not element of>           not element
           \(sb             <proper subset>            proper subset
           \(nb             <not subset>               not subset
           \(sp             <proper superset>          proper superset
           \(nc             <not superset>             not superset
           \(ib             <subset or equal>          reflexive subset
           \(ip             <superset or equal>        reflexive superset
           \(ca             <intersection>             intersection
           \(cu             <union>     union
           \(/_             <angle>     angle
           \(pp             <perpendicular>            perpendicular
           \(is             <integral>  integral
           \[integral]      <integral>  integral
           \[sum]           <sum>       summation
           \[product]       <product>   product
           \[coproduct]     <coproduct> coproduct
           \(gr             <nabla>     gradient
           \(sr             <sqrt>      square root
           \[sqrt]          <sqrt>      square root
           \(lc             |~          left-ceiling
           \(rc             ~|          right-ceiling
           \(lf             |_          left-floor
           \(rf             _|          right-floor
           \(if             <infinity>  infinity
           \(Ah             <Aleph>     aleph
           \(Im             <Im>        imaginary
           \(Re             <Re>        real
           \(pd             <del>       partial differential
           \(-h                         Planck constant over 2<pi>
           \[12]            1/2         one-half
           \[14]            1/4         one-fourth
           \[34]            3/4         three-fourths

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(ff     ff          ff ligature
           \(fi     fi          fi ligature
           \(fl     fl          fl ligature
           \(Fi     ffi         ffi ligature
           \(Fl     ffl         ffl ligature
           \(AE     AE          AE
           \(ae     ae          ae
           \(OE     OE          OE
           \(oe     oe          oe
           \(ss     ss          German eszett
           \(IJ     IJ          IJ ligature
           \(ij     ij          ij ligature

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(a"     _           Hungarian umlaut
           \(a-                 macron
           \(a.     .           dotted
           \(a^     ^           circumflex
           \(aa     '           acute
           \'       '           acute
           \(ga     `           grave
           \`       `           grave
           \(ab     `           breve
           \(ac     ,           cedilla
           \(ad     "           dieresis
           \(ah     v           caron
           \(ao     o           ring
           \(a~     ~           tilde
           \(ho     ,           ogonek
           \(ha     ^           hat (text)
           \(ti     ~           tilde (text)

     Accented letters:
           Input    Rendered    Description
           \('A     A           acute A
           \('E     E           acute E
           \('I     I           acute I
           \('O     O           acute O
           \('U     U           acute U
           \('a     a           acute a
           \('e     e           acute e
           \('i     i           acute i
           \('o     o           acute o
           \('u     u           acute u
           \(`A     A           grave A
           \(`E     E           grave E
           \(`I     I           grave I
           \(`O     O           grave O
           \(`U     U           grave U
           \(`a     a           grave a
           \(`e     e           grave e
           \(`i     i           grave i
           \(`o     i           grave o
           \(`u     u           grave u
           \(~A     A           tilde A
           \(~N     N           tilde N
           \(~O     O           tilde O
           \(~a     a           tilde a
           \(~n     n           tilde n
           \(~o     o           tilde o
           \(:A     A           dieresis A
           \(:E     E           dieresis E
           \(:I     I           dieresis I
           \(:O     O           dieresis O
           \(:U     U           dieresis U
           \(:a     a           dieresis a
           \(:e     e           dieresis e
           \(:i     i           dieresis i
           \(:o     o           dieresis o
           \(:u     u           dieresis u
           \(:y     y           dieresis y
           \(^A     A           circumflex A
           \(^E     E           circumflex E
           \(^I     I           circumflex I
           \(^O     O           circumflex O
           \(^U     U           circumflex U
           \(^a     a           circumflex a
           \(^e     e           circumflex e
           \(^i     i           circumflex i
           \(^o     o           circumflex o
           \(^u     u           circumflex u
           \(,C     C           cedilla C
           \(,c     c           cedilla c
           \(/L     L           stroke L
           \(/l     l           stroke l
           \(/O     O           stroke O
           \(/o     o           stroke o
           \(oA     A           ring A
           \(oa     a           ring a

     Special letters:
           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(-D     Dh          Eth
           \(Sd     dh          eth
           \(TP     Th          Thorn
           \(Tp     th          thorn
           \(.i     i           dotless i
           \(.j     j           dotless j

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(Do     $           dollar
           \(ct     c           cent
           \(Eu     EUR         Euro symbol
           \(eu     EUR         Euro symbol
           \(Ye     Y           yen
           \(Po     L           pound
           \(Cs     x           Scandinavian
           \(Fn     f           florin

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(de     <degree>    degree
           \(%0     <permille>  per-thousand
           \(fm     '           minute
           \(sd     ''          second
           \(mc     <micro>     micro

     Greek letters:
           Input    Rendered    Description
           \(*A     A           Alpha
           \(*B     B           Beta
           \(*G     <Gamma>     Gamma
           \(*D     <Delta>     Delta
           \(*E     E           Epsilon
           \(*Z     Z           Zeta
           \(*Y     H           Eta
           \(*H     <Theta>     Theta
           \(*I     I           Iota
           \(*K     K           Kappa
           \(*L     <Lambda>    Lambda
           \(*M     M           Mu
           \(*N     N           Nu
           \(*C     <Xi>        Xi
           \(*O     O           Omicron
           \(*P     <Pi>        Pi
           \(*R     P           Rho
           \(*S     <Sigma>     Sigma
           \(*T     T           Tau
           \(*U     Y           Upsilon
           \(*F     <Phi>       Phi
           \(*X     X           Chi
           \(*Q     <Psi>       Psi
           \(*W     <Omega>     Omega
           \(*a     <alpha>     alpha
           \(*b     <beta>      beta
           \(*g     <gamma>     gamma
           \(*d     <delta>     delta
           \(*e     <epsilon>   epsilon
           \(*z     <zeta>      zeta
           \(*y     <eta>       eta
           \(*h     <theta>     theta
           \(*i     <iota>      iota
           \(*k     <kappa>     kappa
           \(*l     <lambda>    lambda
           \(*m     <mu>        mu
           \(*n     <nu>        nu
           \(*c     <xi>        xi
           \(*o     o           omicron
           \(*p     <pi>        pi
           \(*r     <rho>       rho
           \(*s     <sigma>     sigma
           \(*t     <tau>       tau
           \(*u     <upsilon>   upsilon
           \(*f     <phi>       phi
           \(*x     <chi>       chi
           \(*q     <psi>       psi
           \(*w     <omega>     omega
           \(+h     <theta>     theta variant
           \(+f     <phi>       phi variant
           \(+p     <pi>        pi variant
           \(+e     <epsilon>   epsilon variant
           \(ts     <sigma>     sigma terminal

     Predefined strings are inherited from the macro packages of historical
     troff implementations.  They are not recommended for use, as they differ
     across implementations.  Manuals using these predefined strings are
     almost certainly not portable.

     Their syntax is similar to special characters, using '\*X' (for a
     one-character escape), '\*(XX' (two-character), and '\*[N]'
     (N-character).  For details, see the Predefined Strings subsection of the
     roff(7) manual.

           Input    Rendered    Description
           \*(Ba    |           vertical bar
           \*(Ne    !=          not equal
           \*(Ge    >=          greater-than-equal
           \*(Le    <=          less-than-equal
           \*(Gt    >           greater-than
           \*(Lt    <           less-than
           \*(Pm    +-          plus-minus
           \*(If    infinity    infinity
           \*(Pi    pi          pi
           \*(Na    NaN         NaN
           \*(Am    &           ampersand
           \*R                  restricted mark
           \*(Tm                trade mark
           \*q      "           double-quote
           \*(Rq    "           right-double-quote
           \*(Lq    "           left-double-quote
           \*(lp    (           right-parenthesis
           \*(rp    )           left-parenthesis
           \*(lq                left double-quote
           \*(rq                right double-quote
           \*(ua    ^           up arrow
           \*(va                up-down arrow
           \*(<=    <=          less-than-equal
           \*(>=    >=          greater-than-equal
           \*(aa    '           acute
           \*(ga    `           grave
           \*(Px    POSIX       POSIX standard name
           \*(Ai    ANSI        ANSI standard name

     The escape sequence


     is interpreted as a Unicode codepoint.  The codepoint must be in the
     range above U+0080 and less than U+10FFFF.  For compatibility, points
     must be zero-padded to four characters; if greater than four characters,
     no zero padding is allowed.  Unicode surrogates are not allowed.

     For backward compatibility with existing manuals, mandoc(1) also supports


     escape sequence, inserting the character number from the current
     character set into the output.  Of course, this is inherently non-
     portable and is already marked as deprecated in the Heirloom roff manual.
     For example, do not use \N'34', use \(dq, or even the plain '"' character
     where possible.

     This section documents compatibility between mandoc and other other troff
     implementations, at this time limited to GNU troff ("groff").

     -   The \N'' escape sequence is limited to printable characters; in
         groff, it accepts arbitrary character numbers.
     -   In -Tascii, the \(ss, \(nm, \(nb, \(nc, \(ib, \(ip, \(pp, \[sum],
         \[product], \[coproduct], \(gr, \(-h, and \(a. special characters
         render differently between mandoc and groff.
     -   In -Thtml and -Txhtml, the \(~=, \(nb, and \(nc special characters
         render differently between mandoc and groff.
     -   The -Tps and -Tpdf modes format like -Tascii instead of rendering
         glyphs as in groff.
     -   The \[radicalex], \[sqrtex], and \(ru special characters have been
         omitted from mandoc either because they are poorly documented or they
         have no known representation.

     mandoc(1), man(7), mdoc(7), roff(7)

     The mandoc_char manual page was written by Kristaps Dzonsons,

     The '\*(Ba' escape mimics the behaviour of the '|' character in mdoc(7);
     thus, if you wish to render a vertical bar with no side effects, use the
     '\(ba' escape.

BSD                            November 23, 2011                           BSD