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INDENT(1)                 BSD General Commands Manual                INDENT(1)

     indent -- indent and format C program source

     indent [input-file [output-file]] [-bacc | -nbacc] [-bad | -nbad]
            [-bap | -nbap] [-bbb | -nbbb] [-bc | -nbc] [-bl] [-br] [-cn]
            [-cdn] [-cdb | -ncdb] [-ce | -nce] [-cin] [-clin] [-dn] [-din]
            [-fc1 | -nfc1] [-in] [-ip | -nip] [-ln] [-lcn] [-lp | -nlp]
            [-npro] [-pcs | -npcs] [-psl | -npsl] [-sc | -nsc] [-sob | -nsob]
            [-st] [-troff] [-v | -nv]

     indent is a C program formatter.  It reformats the C program in the
     input-file according to the switches.  The switches which can be
     specified are described below.  They may appear before or after the file

     NOTE: If you only specify an input-file, the formatting is done `in-
     place', that is, the formatted file is written back into input-file and a
     backup copy of input-file is written in the current directory.  If
     input-file is named '/blah/blah/file', the backup file is named file.BAK.

     If output-file is specified, indent checks to make sure it is different
     from input-file.

     The options listed below control the formatting style imposed by indent.

     -bacc, -nbacc   If -bacc is specified, a blank line is forced around
                     every conditional compilation block.  For example, in
                     front of every #ifdef and after every #endif.  Other
                     blank lines surrounding such blocks will be swallowed.
                     Default: -nbacc.

     -bad, -nbad     If -bad is specified, a blank line is forced after every
                     block of declarations.  Default: -nbad.

     -bap, -nbap     If -bap is specified, a blank line is forced after every
                     procedure body.  Default: -nbap.

     -bbb, -nbbb     If -bbb is specified, a blank line is forced before every
                     block comment.  Default: -nbbb.

     -bc, -nbc       If -bc is specified, then a newline is forced after each
                     comma in a declaration.  -nbc turns off this option.
                     Default: -bc.

     -br, -bl        Specifying -bl lines up compound statements like this:

                           if (...)

                     Specifying -br (the default) makes them look like this:

                           if (...) {

     -bs, -nbs       If -bs is specified, a blank is forced after sizeof.
                     Default: -nbs.

     -cn             The column in which comments on code start.  Default:

     -cdn            The column in which comments on declarations start.  The
                     default is for these comments to start in the same column
                     as those on code.

     -cdb, -ncdb     Enables (disables) the placement of comment delimiters on
                     blank lines.  With this option enabled, comments look
                     like this:

                                    * this is a comment

                     Rather than like this:

                                   /* this is a comment */

                     This only affects block comments, not comments to the
                     right of code.  Default: -cdb.

     -ce, -nce       Enables (disables) forcing `else's to cuddle up to the
                     immediately preceding `}'.  Default: -ce.

     -cin            Sets the continuation indent to be n.  Continuation lines
                     will be indented that far from the beginning of the first
                     line of the statement.  Parenthesized expressions have
                     extra indentation added to indicate the nesting, unless
                     -lp is in effect.  -ci defaults to the same value as -i.

     -clin           Causes case labels to be indented n tab stops to the
                     right of the containing switch statement.  -cli0.5 causes
                     case labels to be indented half a tab stop.  Default:

     -dn             Controls the placement of comments which are not to the
                     right of code.  For example, -d1 means that such comments
                     are placed one indentation level to the left of code.
                     Specifying the default -d0 lines up these comments with
                     the code.  See the section on comment indentation below.

     -din            Specifies the indentation, in character positions, from a
                     declaration keyword to the following identifier.
                     Default: -di16.

     -dj, -ndj       -dj left justifies declarations.  -ndj indents
                     declarations the same as code.  Default: -ndj.

     -ei, -nei       Enables (disables) special else-if processing.  If it's
                     enabled, an if following an else will have the same
                     indentation as the preceding if statement.  Default: -ei.

     -eei, -neei     Enables (disables) extra indentation on continuation
                     lines of the expression part of if and while statements.
                     These continuation lines will be indented one extra
                     level.  Default: -neei.

     -fc1, -nfc1     Enables (disables) the formatting of comments that start
                     in column 1.  Often, comments whose leading `/' is in
                     column 1 have been carefully hand formatted by the
                     programmer.  In such cases, -nfc1 should be used.
                     Default: -fc1.

     -in             The number of spaces for one indentation level.  Default:

     -ip, -nip       Enables (disables) the indentation of parameter
                     declarations from the left margin.  Default: -ip.

     -ln             Maximum length of an output line.  Default: -l78.

     -lp, -nlp       Lines up code surrounded by parenthesis in continuation
                     lines.  If a line has a left parenthesis which is not
                     closed on that line, then continuation lines will be
                     lined up to start at the character position just after
                     the left parenthesis.  For example, here is how a piece
                     of continued code looks with -nlp in effect:

                           p1 = first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),

                     With -lp in effect (the default) the code looks somewhat

                           p1 = first_procedure(second_procedure(p2, p3),

                     Inserting two more newlines we get:

                           p1 = first_procedure(second_procedure(p2,

     -npro           Causes the profile files, './' and
                     '~/', to be ignored.

     -pcs, -npcs     If true (-pcs) all procedure calls will have a space
                     inserted between the name and the `('.  Default: -npcs.

     -psl, -npsl     If true (-psl) the names of procedures being defined are
                     placed in column 1 - their types, if any, will be left on
                     the previous lines.  Default: -psl.

     -sc, -nsc       Enables (disables) the placement of asterisks (`*'s) at
                     the left edge of all comments.  Default: -sc.

     -sob, -nsob     If -sob is specified, indent will swallow optional blank
                     lines.  You can use this to get rid of blank lines after
                     declarations.  Default: -nsob.

     -st             Causes indent to take its input from stdin, and put its
                     output to stdout.

     -Ttypename      Adds typename to the list of type keywords.  Names
                     accumulate: -T can be specified more than once.  You need
                     to specify all the typenames that appear in your program
                     that are defined by typedef - nothing will be harmed if
                     you miss a few, but the program won't be formatted as
                     nicely as it should.  This sounds like a painful thing to
                     have to do, but it's really a symptom of a problem in C:
                     typedef causes a syntactic change in the language and
                     indent can't find all instances of typedef.

     -troff          Causes indent to format the program for processing by
                     troff(1).  It will produce a fancy listing in much the
                     same spirit as vgrind(1).  If the output file is not
                     specified, the default is standard output, rather than
                     formatting in place.

     -v, -nv         -v turns on `verbose' mode; -nv turns it off.  When in
                     verbose mode, indent reports when it splits one line of
                     input into two or more lines of output, and gives some
                     size statistics at completion.  Default: -nv.

     You may set up your own `profile' of defaults to indent by creating a
     file called in your login directory and/or the current
     directory and including whatever switches you like.  A `' in
     the current directory takes precedence over the one in your login
     directory.  If indent is run and a profile file exists, then it is read
     to set up the program's defaults.  Switches on the command line, though,
     always override profile switches.  The switches should be separated by
     spaces, tabs or newlines.

     'Box' comments.  indent assumes that any comment with a dash or star
     immediately after the start of comment (that is, `/*-' or `/**') is a
     comment surrounded by a box of stars.  Each line of such a comment is
     left unchanged, except that its indentation may be adjusted to account
     for the change in indentation of the first line of the comment.

     Straight text.  All other comments are treated as straight text.  indent
     fits as many words (separated by blanks, tabs, or newlines) on a line as
     possible.  Blank lines break paragraphs.

   Comment indentation
     If a comment is on a line with code it is started in the `comment
     column', which is set by the -cn command line parameter.  Otherwise, the
     comment is started at n indentation levels less than where code is
     currently being placed, where n is specified by the -dn command line
     parameter.  If the code on a line extends past the comment column, the
     comment starts further to the right, and the right margin may be
     automatically extended in extreme cases.

   Preprocessor lines
     In general, indent leaves preprocessor lines alone.  The only
     reformatting that it will do is to straighten up trailing comments.  It
     leaves embedded comments alone.  Conditional compilation
     (#ifdef...#endif) is recognized and indent attempts to correctly
     compensate for the syntactic peculiarities introduced.

   C syntax
     indent understands a substantial amount about the syntax of C, but it has
     a `forgiving' parser.  It attempts to cope with the usual sorts of
     incomplete and misformed syntax.  In particular, the use of macros like:

           #define forever for(;;)

     is handled properly.

     indent uses the HOME environment variable.

     ./  profile file
     ~/  profile file

     The indent command appeared in 4.2BSD.

     indent has even more switches than ls(1).

     A common mistake that often causes grief is typing:

           indent *.c

     to the shell in an attempt to indent all the C programs in a directory.
     This is probably a bug, not a feature.

BSD                              July 1, 1993                              BSD